петак, 30. јул 2010.

Proteins (Agriculture)


Protein is name given to a class of organic compounds containing nitrogen. Every protein consists of what are known as amino acids linked together. An amino acid is an organic acid containing both amino and carboxylic groups as for example amino acetic acid. The importance of proteins is seen from the fact that they are an essential constituent of all living cells. Animal life can be supported for quite long periods by proteins alone (water and a little salt are naturally needed) whereas fat and carbohydrates cannot do this.
Proteins are the body-builders among the nutrients. They are needed for growth and repair of tissues. Almost all foods contain some protein, the richest sources being meat, fish, eggs, beans, peas, and flour.
Proteins are complicated structures, each molecule containing more than 1000 atoms. All proteins contain the elements nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Sulphur and phosphorus are also found in many proteins. Examples of proteins are casein (from milk), gluten (from flour), albumen (from eggs), and hemoglobin and serum albumin (from blood).
When proteins are digested, the large molecules are first broken up in the stomach by the enzyme pepsin, which converts the proteins into peptones. These peptones then pass into the intestine where they are acted on by the enzyme trypsin to be changed to amino acid.
The body then builds this amino acid into proteins that make muscle tissue and protoplasm.
Amino acids, which are not needed to build protein can be oxidized by the body to produce heat and energy, to be used when the body’s supply of carbohydrates and fats is used up.
A test for a protein is to add concentrated nitric, acid to the food. A yellow color, which changes to orange when ammonium hydroxide is added, indicates the presence of protein material.
Protein as a group can be rapidly and readily distinguished by a number of color reactions, such as the red coagulated mass obtained with millions reagent (mercury in nitric acid).
The splitting of various proteins and the realization that they can consist of chains of various amino acids is a fascinating story, largely clarified by the pioneer work of Fischer.

Fruit cultivation (Agriculture)

Fruit cultivation

Plums damsons and apricots

Plums can be eaten fresh or used for bottling, cooking or jam making. Gages are better-floured type of plum for eating and bottling, and damsons, which have a sour taste, are more suitable for cooking and bottling than eating fresh.
All are cultivated in the same way and will succeed in most soils but prefer well-drained loam or clay. Plums and gages flower early and should not be planted in areas where spring frosts are likely.
Gages give the best results if they are grown against a wall. Damsons can stand more rain and less sun that plums and gages, and they usually flower a little later.
Trees tend to grow too large for the average-sized garden, unless on semi-dwarfing rootstock. The most suitable restricted forms for the amateur are fans and pyramids. All damsons are self-fertile, but some varieties of plums and gages need to be grown with another variety as a pollinator.
Two or three should provide enough fruit for the average family. The fruiting seasons for plums and gages is form late July to early October.
Wasps may be troublesome in some years. They eat the ripening fruit, especially if it is already damaged. If you can find the nest, apply a proprietary wasp powder. Netting and similar protection against birds helps to deter them.
Apricots are hardy enough to be grown outside, but because they flower early-usually in spring – they need a sheltered site to protect the blossom from frost damage.
They are best trained as fan trees against a south-facing wall but in milder areas can be grown as bush trees if sheltered from cold winds.
One tree should be enough for the average family. The fruiting season is from July until the end of August, depending on the variety.
Soils and feeding requirements are the same as those of plums. Trees bear fruit on one-years-old and older wood. Train fan and bush trees like apples until the framework is built up.
Apricots are self-fertile, but they flower when few pollinating insects are about, so artificial pollination is advisable to ensure a good crop. Dab a small, soft paintbrush over the open flowers every two or three days during the flowering period.
Thinning is necessary only if branches are very heavily laden.
Pick apricots when they are ripe and well colored, and part easily from the tree. Eat or preserve them as soon as possible after picking.

Apples are the most widely grown fruit. They will grow in most soils, but do best in well-drained neutral or slightly alkaline soil that will not dry out in summer.
Apples do not grow well in seaside gardens because salt laden winds can be damaging.
Most varieties of apple tree need cross-pollinating by another variety that blossom at the same time. But specialist nurserymen now produce family trees that consist of three cross-pollinating varieties growing on a single rootstock. In this way you need plant only a single tree.
For a family of four people who like apples, six bush trees will be provide ample fruit. Fruit matures from August to April, depending on the variety.
The best time to plant is in autumn or in frost-free weather in winter. The roots of newly planted trees need plenty of water. If you plant during a dry period, make sure the soils are kept moist.
For the first two or three years, mulch in spring with a layer of straw or well-rotted compost.
Every winter, in late January, feed trees with 1 oz of sulfate of potash to the square yard.
Sprinkle the fertilizer evenly over the soil, covering an area slightly larger than that overspread by the branches. Let it penetrate naturally. Do not fork it in as this than damage the roots. Remove weeds by shallow hoeing or with a liquid weedkiller. Mature trees need watering during prolonged dry spells; apply 4 gallons to the square yard to the area overspread by the branches.
Thinning a heavy crop of young apples – The aim on thinning is to allow the remaining apples to grow to full size. Otherwise, too heavy a crop would result in small, poor fruit.
Start tinning a heavy crop of young apples in early June, before the natural drop later in the month. The June drop is normal and not generally any cause for alarm. From each cluster firs remove the central fruit.
Harvesting apples according to their season – The best way to test if apples are ready for picking is to lift one up to the horizontal in the palm of tour hand and twist, gently with your hand. It is ready for picking only if it parts easily from the tree, with the stalk remaining on the fruit.
Harvest apples with as much care as if handling eggs, because they bruise easily. Place ripe apples in a container lined with soft material.
Early apples will not keep and are best eaten as soon as they are picked.

Vegetable cultivation (Agriculture)

Vegetable cultivation


There are two types of cucumbers: frame cucumbers, which need a good deal of warmth and are grown under glass (in a greenhouse or cold frame) and ridge cucumbers, which are hardier and can grown outdoors in summer in a sunny, sheltered position.
Cucumbers grown without artificial heat are in seasons from about August to October. Those grown in a heated greenhouse are ready from about May.
Cucumbers are climbing plants. In a greenhouse they need to be trained along wires; in cold frames or in the open air, they can be left to trail along the ground.
All cucumbers need rich soil. If growing them in a greenhouse border, make a bed of 3 parts good loam and 1 part well-rotted manure. If growing them in a cold frame or outdoors, dig the bed well and enrich it with plenty of well-rotted manure or garden compost.
A high temperature is needed for the seeds to germinate. They can be started in boxes or pots in an electrically heated propagator thermostat set at 24 C.
If no propagator is available, stand seed containers above the source of greenhouse heat.
Make a firs sowing in February and second in April. Sow either singly in 3 inch peat pots filled with seed compost pushing them in edgeways until covered by about half an inch of compost, or else 1 inch apart in boxes of seed compost.
Cover the pots or boxes with glass, and place a folded sheet of newspaper on top. Then place them in the propagator or over the source of heat.
After germination, night temperature should not fall much below 16 C, for about a month. Before planting out seedlings, fix vertical wires for training laterals along the wall and under the roof where the plants will grow. Place them about 12 inches away from the glass.
When seedlings have two rough leaves, transfer them to a bed made up on the greenhouse border or bench, or into 10-inch pots. Fix a horizontal wire, string or cane beside each plant for it to grow.
When the plants have grown up to a height of about 3 ft pinch out the growing tips of the leading shoots. If no cucumbers have appeared on laterals by the time they are about 2 ft long, pinch out the growing tips.
Cucumbers carry both male and female flowers. Shade the plants from strong sunshine, and water copiously. Damp down the floor of the greenhouse with a hose at least twice a day to maintain a humid condition. Pick them when they are a reasons-able size, but before they start to yellow. If picked too young they will taste bitter.


Tomatoes are very sensitive to frost and cold, and are generally grown in greenhouse. But there are varieties that can be grown outdoors from June to September in a sunny, sheltered position.
As they take four or five months from sowing to ripening, depending on conditions, plants need to be sown in late march or early April. They can be starter in a cold greenhouse if the weather is suitable, but stand a better chance if started in heat.
Tomato plants can usually be planted out in a cold greenhouse of frame about mid-April, under cloches about mid-May or on the open garden in June.
You can also buy plants from a nursery ready for planting out. They should be sturdy, dark green, and about 8 in. high. Do not buy plants that look weak, fernlike or diseased. Avoid light green plants with large gaps between the leaves, which have been grown in poor light, also purplish-green plants, as they have been grown under too cold conditions. If planting outdoors, make sure you buy an outdoor variety.
Tomatoes are usually grown as a single stem (cordon), which if not stopped, can grow to a height of about 6 ft. All greenhouse plants are grown as cordons. Dwarf or bush varieties are also available for growing outdoors. Dwarf varieties spread along the ground and are not higher than 6 in. Bushes have a dropping growth.

Planting out young tomatoes in the open

Choose a warm, sheltered spot for planting-preferably a border beside a wall of fence. Dig the ground thoroughly and add plenty of well-rotted manure or garden compost. Do this well before the planting or at the same time as applying fertilizer. When all danger of frost is over, plant out in the prepared bed. Knock each plant gently out of its pot, keeping the soil ball intact and plant it so that the top of the ball is half an inch below soil level. Firm the soil round each plant, leave the pots in the greenhouse or on the window-ledge and keep moist. Water plants thoroughly and scatter slug pellets round them.